NURS FPX 4050 Final Care Coordination Plan

Final Care Coordination Plan

NURS FPX 4050 Final Care Coordination Plan

In the preliminary care coordination plan, stroke was selected as a key and an important health care issue to find interventions and develop coordinated care for the patients who suffer from care and after suffering from the care as mortality rate is 5.5 million when it comes to stroke (Donkor, 2018). Care coordination will be effective in addressing issues associated with stroke and such conditions (“Care Coordination,” 2014). The purpose of the final care coordination plan is to develop a patient-centered health care intervention along with a timeline and analyze evidence through literature for three health care issues. In this paper, stroke, heart disease, and diabetes in adults are considered as three major health issues. 

The paper consists of ethical considerations to design a coordinated plan for three health care issues, implications of relevant health care policies, priorities for coordinator to successfully implement the plan, and evaluating best practices and aligning the plan with healthy people 2030.  

NURS FPX 4050 Final Care Coordination Plan

Patient-centered health intervention design and timelines

Addressing three health care issues

Stroke and intervention design

Stroke is one of the leading causes of high mortality rate in the world. Further, its effects are detrimental as it leads to poor quality of life, difficulty in speech, walk, and other daily activities, and chances of recurrence of stroke (Mejia et al., 2017). Healthy people 2030 considers stroke as an outcome of poor cardiovascular health (Health.gov, 2019). Thus, heart disease or cardiac arrest is considered as the second key health issue. 

The evidence highlights that the strokes are of different types and hence, it is critical to find and apply patient-centered interventions to prevent, treat, and manage strokes (Morris et al., 2017). The intervention will be of multimodal design as different factors were considered and each factor was addressed. 

The factors such as patient conditions, culture, type of stroke, and causes of the stroke. The first intervention is to promote a healthy lifestyle through better diet and cardiovascular activities (Wafa et al., 2020). The second part is implementing endovascular intervention to examine large vessel occlusion. Then the patient who has a severe ischemic stroke will be subjected to neurological workup (Khaki & Tadi, 2021). Patients who suffer from moderate to severe strokes should undergo urgent carotid interventions within 48 hours of occurrence (Morris et al., 2017). Nurses should be educated and trained to diagnose each patient and adopt right intervention such as percutaneous vascular interventions or intravenous thrombolytic treatment for the acute ischemic strokes (Lindekleiv et al., 2018). Further, stroke management interventions such as management of antiplatelet and statins should be considered (Khaki & Tadi, 2021).  As psychosocial, social, and cultural aspects affect the recovery as stigma can prevent successful recovery, better psychological and emotional support should be given (Merriman et al., 2019).

Timeline and resources

NURS FPX 4050 Final Care Coordination Plan

The plan will take three months to implement and test the outcomes of interventions as the first month will be sufficient for training and educating nurses and providing resources for successful implementation. The three community resources that will be helpful are local support association for stroke survivors, community health workers, and online support at the internet stroke center (Stroke Support Association, 2021).   

Cardiovascular disease and interventions

Cardiovascular disease is one of the deadliest diseases, which is caused by build-up of fatty deposits inside the arteries leading to increased clots of blood. The mortality rate is 655,000 every year in the US and one in every four deaths are due to the condition (CDC, 2021). The condition is selected as it can also lead to stroke. Preventing cardiovascular disease can lead to prevention of strokes (Zhao et al., 2018). The healthy people 2030 document highlights nutrition and physical activities as key interventions to prevent cardiovascular diseases and manage the condition (Health.gov, 2018). 

To prevent and manage the cardiovascular disease, an integration of diet and lifestyle-based, therapeutic, and clinical interventions were included in the final care coordination plan along with interprofessional collaboration to provide patient-centered care (Brandhorst & Longo, 2019). The diet and lifestyle-based intervention include patient-centered and culture-based nutrition plan, 6 hours of moderate to high intensity workout, and balanced diet with better dietary patterns, moderated macronutrients, physician counselling, and BMI (body mass index) tracking (de Jesus et al., 2016). The culture-based treatments are important as obesity and the rate of cardiovascular disease is high in certain communities compared to others (Brandhorst & Longo, 2019). 

The therapeutic interventions include stress management, cell-based therapies, stem cell therapies, and nanomedicines (Ma et al., 2017). Further, meditation, psychological well-being (Rafnsson & Fowkes, 2020), and lifestyle choices based on patient-centered plans developed by clinicians, physicians, and nutritionists will be beneficial (Maulik, 2013). 

Timeline and resources

NURS FPX 4050 Final Care Coordination Plan

The final care plan takes three months to implement as creating dietary plans and promoting a healthy lifestyle will take time. After that, 3-months to 6-months of evaluation of intervention will be carried out to find the effectiveness of the integrated solutions. The three major community resources will be American heart association, U.S. food and drug administration: eat for a healthy heart, and local nutritional clubs. 

Diabetes and interventions

Diabetes is another major issue in the US and worldwide as every year the rate is increasing as there are 34.2 million diabetic patients with 7.3 million undiagnosed diabetic patients (CDC, 2021). Thus, preventive and management diabetic interventions should be considered. This is an important condition as diabetes will lead to cardiovascular conditions such as heart attack or arrest (Mathews et al., 2017). The healthy people 2030 document proposes and recommends intensive lifestyle interventions with nutrition and self-management as key interventions (Health.gov, 2020). 

Self-management through education and diabetes self-management education (DSME) is professional intervention where nurses, patients, physicians, nutritionists, and other professionals collaborate to educate patients to prepare a patient-centered lifestyle (Lepard et al., 2017). The intervention includes medication taking, self-monitoring (Carpenter et al., 2019), diet, exercise, and the appropriate use of health services (Glazier et al., 2016). 

Timeline and resources

The process can be implemented in two months where first months will be used for patient education and promoting healthy lifestyle in the community. The process then moves to creating and implementing culture-based, patient-centered, and socioeconomic-based interventions to reduce obesity and diabetes in the community (Health.gov, 2020). The three major community resources are academy of nutrition and dietetics, local health and nutrition services, and medical clinics. 

NURS FPX 4050 Final Care Coordination Plan

Ethical decisions in designing patient-centered health interventions

Designing and implementing a final care coordinated plan to treat, prevent, and manage conditions can be beneficial, but it may not be in every patient’s interest as there will be different circumstances and issues, which can result in ethical conflicts and need for ethical decision-making to fulfil the quality care and health care access obligations. For example, both intravenous thrombolytic treatment and endovascular intervention suit the patient to treat the stroke, but patients prefer urgent carotid interventions within 48 hours of occurrence as some studies and physicians recommend it over others. In such cases, conflict between a patient’s wish, availability of evidence, and patient’s well-being creates conflicts. 

Similarly, high intensity workout might not suit certain patients who have lung issues and problems of asthma. In this case, questions such as whether to completely change the intervention or modify it and test the intervention despite its possible negative effects, but high possibility of positive outcome creates conflicts of ethical decision-making (DeCamp et al., 2017). In case of diabetes, use of culture-based treatment such as use of a non-protein rich diet can lead to complexities. The question whether to respect a patient’s choice to stick to the cultural needs creates ethical decision-making issues (Lulé et al., 2019). 

Also, some cannot afford quality nutrition due to socioeconomic conditions. Thus, it is important to address these questions by adopting an ethical decision-making process based on patient-centered, culture-based, best quality, and affordable care (Lulé et al., 2019). In such situations, ethical aspects of respect for persons, nonmaleficence or beneficence, and justice should be followed (DeCamp et al., 2017). 

Identifying relevant health policy implications for the coordination and continuum of care

NURS FPX 4050 Final Care Coordination Plan

Health care policies and acts directly and indirectly affects coordinated care plan and continuum of care (Khullar & Chokshi, 2018). The AHRQ identifies key practice and policy recommendations such as population identification, identity protection, delivering services, health care access, and cost of care as key concepts (AHRQ, 2021). The first policy the affects the care is the HIPPA act where each patient’s identity should be protected during coordinated care and privacy should be given (Holt, 2020). The second kay policy is affordable care act (ACA) as it includes recommendations for the identified diseases or health issues and need for Medicaid, treatment plans, and cost-effective care (Khullar & Chokshi, 2018). Further, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services management billing policy, and policy related to self-management affects the care and coordination (AHRQ, 2021). The telemedicine and telehealth policies control how a patient can access online community resources and how organizations provide services by adhering to HIPPA act and recent telehealth policies (Bescos & Westerteicher, 2018). 

Priorities that a care coordinator would establish when discussing the plan

The care coordinator will include patient well-being and quality of care provided along with patient safety as key or prioritized aspects when discussing the plan with family members and patients to implement the change (Quinn et al., 2017). Also, other aspects such as medical history, culture, and patient’s wishes or consent will be critical in implementing the changes based on EBP (AHRQ, 2019). However, cost of care, patient and family education and empowerment should also be at the top of priority as the coordinator will collaborate with patients, families, and other health care professionals to highlight prevalence of stroke, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Further, the need for change should be highlighted as failing to prevent, treat, and manage will result in mortality, morbidity, and other issues (Zhao et al., 2018). 

NURS FPX 4050 Final Care Coordination Plan

Evaluating best practices and healthy people 2030

The literature used in the paper highlights how stroke, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes are related as one leads to another and effective intervention should be used to prevent and manage the health issues. Carotid interventions within 48 hours of occurrence of stroke is considered EBP solution (Morris et al., 2017) and patient-centered care recommended by healthy people 2030 highlights the need for changing or adopting new EBP interventions as the evidence suggest that they aid in better treatment recovery (Health.gov, 2019). Combination of stress management, carotid interventions, percutaneous vascular interventions or intravenous thrombolytic, management of antiplatelet and statins, and care based on psychosocial, social, and cultural aspect are best practices for stroke (Lindekleiv et al., 2018). 

Similarly, nutrition, therapeutic, and clinical based intervention with education and community support are the best solution for cardiovascular diseases (de Jesus et al., 2016). Nutrition, exercise, periodic checkup, and healthy lifestyle-based interventions are best for diabetes (Carpenter et al., 2019). The healthy people 2030 identifies these aspects as key aspects and can lead to reduction in mortality rate, morbidity rate, hospital stay, hospital readmission rate, and cost of care and increase in quality care and safety of acre through coordination and collaboration, but does not fully identify telehealth services and culture-based care (Health.gov, 2019). Thus, the 2030 vision should include these aspects of care as revisions. 

NURS FPX 4050 Final Care Coordination Plan

References

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